Windows Server 2003 interview and certification questions

Windows Server 2003 interview and certification questions
By Rahul Revlana | April 20, 2010
1. How do you double-boot a Win 2003 server box? The Boot.ini file is set as read-only, system, and hidden to prevent unwanted editing. To change the Boot.ini timeout and default settings, use the System option in Control Panel from the Advanced tab and select Startup.
2. What do you do if earlier application doesn’t run on Windows Server 2003? When an application that ran on an earlier legacy version of Windows cannot be loaded during the setup function or if it later malfunctions, you must run the compatibility mode function. This is accomplished by right-clicking the application or setup program and selecting Properties –> Compatibility –> selecting the previously supported operating system.
3. If you uninstall Windows Server 2003, which operating systems can you revert to? Win ME, Win 98, 2000, XP. Note, however, that you cannot upgrade from ME and 98 to Windows Server 2003.
4. How do you get to Internet Firewall settings? Start –> Control Panel –> Network and Internet Connections –> Network Connections.
5. What are the Windows Server 2003 keyboard shortcuts? Winkey opens or closes the Start menu. Winkey + BREAK displays the System Properties dialog box. Winkey + TAB moves the focus to the next application in the taskbar. Winkey + SHIFT + TAB moves the focus to the previous application in the taskbar. Winkey + B moves the focus to the notification area. Winkey + D shows the desktop. Winkey + E opens Windows Explorer showing My Computer. Winkey + F opens the Search panel. Winkey + CTRL + F opens the Search panel with Search for Computers module selected. Winkey + F1 opens Help. Winkey + M minimizes all. Winkey + SHIFT+ M undoes minimization. Winkey + R opens Run dialog. Winkey + U opens the Utility Manager. Winkey + L locks the computer.
6. What is Active Directory? Active Directory is a network-based object store and service that locates and manages resources, and makes these resources available to authorized users and groups. An underlying principle of the Active Directory is that everything is considered an object—people, servers, workstations, printers, documents, and devices. Each object has certain attributes and its own security access control list (ACL).
7. Where are the Windows NT Primary Domain Controller (PDC) and its Backup Domain Controller (BDC) in Server 2003? The Active Directory replaces them. Now all domain controllers share a multimaster peer-to-peer read and write relationship that hosts copies of the Active Directory.
8. How long does it take for security changes to be replicated among the domain controllers? Security-related modifications are replicated within a site immediately. These changes include account and individual user lockout policies, changes to password policies, changes to computer account passwords, and modifications to the Local Security Authority (LSA).
9. What’s new in Windows Server 2003 regarding the DNS management? When DC promotion occurs with an existing forest, the Active Directory Installation Wizard contacts an existing DC to update the directory and replicate from the DC the required portions of the directory. If the wizard fails to locate a DC, it performs debugging and reports what caused the failure and how to fix the problem. In order to be located on a network, every DC must register in DNS DC locator DNS records. The Active Directory Installation Wizard verifies a proper configuration of the DNS infrastructure. All DNS configuration debugging and reporting activity is done with the Active Directory Installation Wizard.
10. When should you create a forest? Organizations that operate on radically different bases may require separate trees with distinct namespaces. Unique trade or brand names often give rise to separate DNS identities. Organizations merge or are acquired and naming continuity is desired. Organizations form partnerships and joint ventures. While access to common resources is desired, a separately defined tree can enforce more direct administrative and security restrictions.
11. How can you authenticate between forests? Four types of authentication are used across forests: (1) Kerberos and NTLM network logon for remote access to a server in another forest; (2) Kerberos and NTLM interactive logon for physical logon outside the user’s home forest; (3) Kerberos delegation to N-tier application in another forest; and (4) user principal name (UPN) credentials.
12. What snap-in administrative tools are available for Active Directory? Active Directory Domains and Trusts Manager, Active Directory Sites and Services Manager, Active Directory Users and Group Manager, Active Directory Replication (optional, available from the Resource Kit), Active Directory Schema Manager (optional, available from adminpak)
13. What types of classes exist in Windows Server 2003 Active Directory?
 Structural class. The structural class is important to the system administrator in that it is the only type from which new Active Directory objects are created. Structural classes are developed from either the modification of an existing structural type or the use of one or more abstract classes.
 Abstract class. Abstract classes are so named because they take the form of templates that actually create other templates (abstracts) and structural and auxiliary classes. Think of abstract classes as frameworks for the defining objects.
 Auxiliary class. The auxiliary class is a list of attributes. Rather than apply numerous attributes when creating a structural class, it provides a streamlined alternative by applying a combination of attributes with a single include action.
 88 class. The 88 class includes object classes defined prior to 1993, when the 1988 X.500 specification was adopted. This type does not use the structural, abstract, and auxiliary definitions, nor is it in common use for the development of objects in Windows Server 2003 environments.
14. How do you delete a lingering object? Windows Server 2003 provides a command called Repadmin that provides the ability to delete lingering objects in the Active Directory.
15. What is Global Catalog? The Global Catalog authenticates network user logons and fields inquiries about objects across a forest or tree. Every domain has at least one GC that is hosted on a domain controller. In Windows 2000, there was typically one GC on every site in order to prevent user logon failures across the network.
16. How is user account security established in Windows Server 2003? When an account is created, it is given a unique access number known as a security identifier (SID). Every group to which the user belongs has an associated SID. The user and related group SIDs together form the user account’s security token, which determines access levels to objects throughout the system and network. SIDs from the security token are mapped to the access control list (ACL) of any object the user attempts to access.
17. If I delete a user and then create a new account with the same username and password, would the SID and permissions stay the same? No. If you delete a user account and attempt to recreate it with the same user name and password, the SID will be different.
18. What do you do with secure sign-ons in an organization with many roaming users? Credential Management feature of Windows Server 2003 provides a consistent single sign-on experience for users. This can be useful for roaming users who move between computer systems. The Credential Management feature provides a secure store of user credentials that includes passwords and X.509 certificates.
19. Anything special you should do when adding a user that has a Mac? "Save password as encrypted clear text" must be selected on User Properties Account Tab Options, since the Macs only store their passwords that way.
20. What remote access options does Windows Server 2003 support? Dial-in, VPN, dial-in with callback.
21. Where are the documents and settings for the roaming profile stored? All the documents and environmental settings for the roaming user are stored locally on the system, and, when the user logs off, all changes to the locally stored profile are copied to the shared server folder. Therefore, the first time a roaming user logs on to a new system the logon process may take some time, depending on how large his profile folder is.
22. Where are the settings for all the users stored on a given machine? \Document and Settings\All Users
23. What languages can you use for log-on scripts? JavaScipt, VBScript, DOS batch files (.com, .bat, or even .exe)

Windows Server 2003 Active Directory and Security questions
By Rahul Revlana | April 20, 2010
1. What’s the difference between local, global and universal groups? Domain local groups assign access permissions to global domain groups for local domain resources. Global groups provide access to resources in other trusted domains. Universal groups grant access to resources in all trusted domains.
2. I am trying to create a new universal user group. Why can’t I? Universal groups are allowed only in native-mode Windows Server 2003 environments. Native mode requires that all domain controllers be promoted to Windows Server 2003 Active Directory.
3. What is LSDOU? It’s group policy inheritance model, where the policies are applied to Local machines, Sites, Domains and Organizational Units.
4. Why doesn’t LSDOU work under Windows NT? If the NTConfig.pol file exist, it has the highest priority among the numerous policies.
5. Where are group policies stored? %SystemRoot%System32\GroupPolicy
6. What is GPT and GPC? Group policy template and group policy container.
7. Where is GPT stored? %SystemRoot%\SYSVOL\sysvol\domainname\Policies\GUID
8. You change the group policies, and now the computer and user settings are in conflict. Which one has the highest priority? The computer settings take priority.
9. You want to set up remote installation procedure, but do not want the user to gain access over it. What do you do? gponame–> User Configuration–> Windows Settings–> Remote Installation Services–> Choice Options is your friend.
10. What’s contained in administrative template conf.adm? Microsoft NetMeeting policies
11. How can you restrict running certain applications on a machine? Via group policy, security settings for the group, then Software Restriction Policies.
12. You need to automatically install an app, but MSI file is not available. What do you do? A .zap text file can be used to add applications using the Software Installer, rather than the Windows Installer.
13. What’s the difference between Software Installer and Windows Installer? The former has fewer privileges and will probably require user intervention. Plus, it uses .zap files.
14. What can be restricted on Windows Server 2003 that wasn’t there in previous products? Group Policy in Windows Server 2003 determines a users right to modify network and dial-up TCP/IP properties. Users may be selectively restricted from modifying their IP address and other network configuration parameters.
15. How frequently is the client policy refreshed? 90 minutes give or take.
16. Where is secedit? It’s now gpupdate.
17. You want to create a new group policy but do not wish to inherit. Make sure you check Block inheritance among the options when creating the policy.
18. What is "tattooing" the Registry? The user can view and modify user preferences that are not stored in maintained portions of the Registry. If the group policy is removed or changed, the user preference will persist in the Registry.
19. How do you fight tattooing in NT/2000 installations? You can’t.
20. How do you fight tattooing in 2003 installations? User Configuration - Administrative Templates - System - Group Policy - enable - Enforce Show Policies Only.
21. What does IntelliMirror do? It helps to reconcile desktop settings, applications, and stored files for users, particularly those who move between workstations or those who must periodically work offline.
22. What’s the major difference between FAT and NTFS on a local machine? FAT and FAT32 provide no security over locally logged-on users. Only native NTFS provides extensive permission control on both remote and local files.
23. How do FAT and NTFS differ in approach to user shares? They don’t, both have support for sharing.
24. Explan the List Folder Contents permission on the folder in NTFS. Same as Read & Execute, but not inherited by files within a folder. However, newly created subfolders will inherit this permission.
25. I have a file to which the user has access, but he has no folder permission to read it. Can he access it? It is possible for a user to navigate to a file for which he does not have folder permission. This involves simply knowing the path of the file object. Even if the user can’t drill down the file/folder tree using My Computer, he can still gain access to the file using the Universal Naming Convention (UNC). The best way to start would be to type the full path of a file into Run… window.
26. For a user in several groups, are Allow permissions restrictive or permissive? Permissive, if at least one group has Allow permission for the file/folder, user will have the same permission.
27. For a user in several groups, are Deny permissions restrictive or permissive? Restrictive, if at least one group has Deny permission for the file/folder, user will be denied access, regardless of other group permissions.
28. What hidden shares exist on Windows Server 2003 installation? Admin$, Drive$, IPC$, NETLOGON, print$ and SYSVOL.
29. What’s the difference between standalone and fault-tolerant DFS (Distributed File System) installations? The standalone server stores the Dfs directory tree structure or topology locally. Thus, if a shared folder is inaccessible or if the Dfs root server is down, users are left with no link to the shared resources. A fault-tolerant root node stores the Dfs topology in the Active Directory, which is replicated to other domain controllers. Thus, redundant root nodes may include multiple connections to the same data residing in different shared folders.
30. We’re using the DFS fault-tolerant installation, but cannot access it from a Win98 box. Use the UNC path, not client, only 2000 and 2003 clients can access Server 2003 fault-tolerant shares.
31. Where exactly do fault-tolerant DFS shares store information in Active Directory? In Partition Knowledge Table, which is then replicated to other domain controllers.
32. Can you use Start->Search with DFS shares? Yes.
33. What problems can you have with DFS installed? Two users opening the redundant copies of the file at the same time, with no file-locking involved in DFS, changing the contents and then saving. Only one file will be propagated through DFS.
34. I run Microsoft Cluster Server and cannot install fault-tolerant DFS. Yeah, you can’t. Install a standalone one.
35. Is Kerberos encryption symmetric or asymmetric? Symmetric.
36. How does Windows 2003 Server try to prevent a middle-man attack on encrypted line? Time stamp is attached to the initial client request, encrypted with the shared key.
37. What hashing algorithms are used in Windows 2003 Server? RSA Data Security’s Message Digest 5 (MD5), produces a 128-bit hash, and the Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA-1), produces a 160-bit hash.
38. What third-party certificate exchange protocols are used by Windows 2003 Server? Windows Server 2003 uses the industry standard PKCS-10 certificate request and PKCS-7 certificate response to exchange CA certificates with third-party certificate authorities.
39. What’s the number of permitted unsuccessful logons on Administrator account? Unlimited. Remember, though, that it’s the Administrator account, not any account that’s part of the Administrators group.
40. If hashing is one-way function and Windows Server uses hashing for storing passwords, how is it possible to attack the password lists, specifically the ones using NTLMv1? A cracker would launch a dictionary attack by hashing every imaginable term used for password and then compare the hashes.
41. What’s the difference between guest accounts in Server 2003 and other editions? More restrictive in Windows Server 2003.
42. How many passwords by default are remembered when you check "Enforce Password History Remembered"? User’s last 6 passwords.

Windows Server 2003 IIS and Scripting interview questions
By Rahul Revlana | April 20, 2010
1. What is presentation layer responsible for in the OSI model? The presentation layer establishes the data format prior to passing it along to the network application’s interface. TCP/IP networks perform this task at the application layer.
2. Does Windows Server 2003 support IPv6? Yes, run ipv6.exe from command line to disable it.
3. Can Windows Server 2003 function as a bridge? Yes, and it’s a new feature for the 2003 product. You can combine several networks and devices connected via several adapters by enabling IP routing.
4. What’s the difference between the basic disk and dynamic disk? The basic type contains partitions, extended partitions, logical drivers, and an assortment of static volumes; the dynamic type does not use partitions but dynamically manages volumes and provides advanced storage options
5. What’s a media pool? It is any compilation of disks or tapes with the same administrative properties.
6. How do you install recovery console? C:\i386\win32 /cmdcons, assuming that your Win server installation is on drive C.
7. What’s new in Terminal Services for Windows 2003 Server? Supports audio transmissions as well, although prepare for heavy network load.
8. What scripts ship with IIS 6.0? iisweb.vsb to create, delete, start, stop, and list Web sites, iisftp.vsb to create, delete, start, stop, and list FTP sites, iisdir.vsb to create, delete, start, stop, and display virtual directories, iisftpdr.vsb to create, delete, start, stop, and display virtual directories under an FTP root, iiscnfg.vbs to export and import IIS configuration to an XML file.
9. What’s the name of the user who connects to the Web site anonymously? IUSR_computername
10. What secure authentication and encryption mechanisms are supported by IIS 6.0? Basic authentication, Digest authentication, Advanced digest authentication, Certificate-based Web transactions that use PKCS #7/PKCS #10, Fortezza, SSL, Server-Gated Cryptography, Transport Layer Security
11. What’s the relation between SSL and TLS? Transport Layer Security (TLS) extends SSL by providing cryptographic authentication.
12. What’s the role of http.sys in IIS? It is the point of contact for all incoming HTTP requests. It listens for requests and queues them until they are all processed, no more queues are available, or the Web server is shut down.
13. Where’s ASP cache located on IIS 6.0? On disk, as opposed to memory, as it used to be in IIS 5.
14. What is socket pooling? Non-blocking socket usage, introduced in IIS 6.0. More than one application can use a given socket.
15. Describe the process of clustering with Windows 2003 Server when a new node is added. As a node goes online, it searches for other nodes to join by polling the designated internal network. In this way, all nodes are notified of the new node’s existence. If other nodes cannot be found on a preexisting cluster, the new node takes control of the quorum resources residing on the shared disk that contains state and configuration data.
16. What applications are not capable of performing in Windows 2003 Server clusters? The ones written exclusively for NetBEUI and IPX.
17. What’s a heartbeat? Communication processes between the nodes designed to ensure node’s health.
18. What’s a threshold in clustered environment? The number of times a restart is attempted, when the node fails.
19. You need to change and admin password on a clustered Windows box, but that requires rebooting the cluster, doesn’t it? No, it doesn’t. In 2003 environment you can do that via cluster.exe utility which does not require rebooting the entire cluster.
20. For the document of size 1 MB, what size would you expect the index to be with Indexing Service? 150-300 KB, 15-30% is a reasonable expectation.
21. Doesn’t the Indexing Service introduce a security flaw when allowing access to the index? No, because users can only view the indices of documents and folders that they have permissions for.
22. What’s the typical size of the index? Less then 100K documents - up to 128 MB. More than that - 256+ MB.
23. Which characters should be enclosed in quotes when searching the index? &, @, $, #, ^, ( ), and |.
24. How would you search for C++? Just enter C++, since + is not a special character (and neither is C).
25. What about Barnes&Noble? Should be searched for as Barnes’&’Noble.
26. Are the searches case-sensitive? No.
27. What’s the order of precedence of Boolean operators in Microsoft Windows 2003 Server Indexing Service? NOT, AND, NEAR, OR.
28. What’s a vector space query? A multiple-word query where the weight can be assigned to each of the search words. For example, if you want to fight information on ‘black hole’, but would prefer to give more weight to the word hole, you can enter black[1] hole[20] into the search window.
29. What’s a response queue? It’s the message queue that holds response messages sent from the receiving application to the sender.
30. What’s MQPing used for? Testing Microsoft Message Queue services between the nodes on a network.
31. Which add-on package for Windows 2003 Server would you use to monitor the installed software and license compliance? SMS (System Management Server).
32. Which service do you use to set up various alerts? MOM (Microsoft Operations Manager).
33. What languages does Windows Scripting Host support? VB, VBScript, JScript.

Windows Server and MS Exchange interview questions
By Rahul Revlana | April 20, 2010
1. What is DHCP? How we configure DHCP?
2. What are the ways to configure DNS & Zones?
3. What are the types of backup? Explain each?
4. What are Levels of RAID 0, 1, 5? Which one is better & why?
5. What are FMSO Roles? List them.
6. Describe the lease process of the DHCP server.
7. Disaster Recovery Plan?
8. What is scope & super scope?
9. Differences between Win 2000 Server & Advanced Server?
10. Logical Diagram of Active Directory? What is the difference between child domain & additional domain server?
11. FTP, NNTP, SMTP, KERBEROS, DNS, DHCP, POP3 port numbers?
12. What is Kerberos? Which version is currently used by Windows? How does Kerberos work?
1. Distribution List?
2. GAL, Routing Group, Stm files, Eseutil & ininteg - what are they used for?
3. What is MIME & MAPI?
4. List the services of Exchange Server 2000?
5. How would you recover Exchange server when the log file is corrupted?

55 most frequently asked interview questions
By Rahul Revlana| April 20, 2010
The following list of frequently asked questions on a job interview, as well as advice on what to be prepared for.
1. Tell me about yourself. Use “Picture Frame Approach” Answer in about two minutes. Avoid details, don’t ramble. Touch on these four areas:
 How many years, doing what function
 Education – credentials
 Major responsibility and accomplishments
 Personal summary of work style (plus career goals if applicable)
Prepare in advance using this formula:
1. “My name is…”
2. “I’ve worked for X years as a [title]“
3. “Currently, I’m a [title] at [company]“
4. “Before that, I was a [title] at [company]“
5. “I love the challenge of my work, especially the major strengths it allows me to offer, including [A, B, and C]“.
6. Second, help the interviewer by focusing the question with a question of your own: “What about me would be most relevant to you and what this company needs?”
2. Did you bring your resume? Yes. Be prepared with two or three extra copies. Do not offer them unless you’re asked for one.
3. What do you know about our organization? Research the target company before the interview. Basic research is the only way to prepare for this question. Do your homework, and you’ll score big on this question. Talk about products, services, history and people, especially any friends that work there. “But I would love to know more, particularly from your point of view. Do we have time to cover that now?
4. What experience do you have? Pre-interview research and PPR Career will help you here. Try to cite experience relevant to the company’s concerns. Also, try answering this questions with a question: “Are you looking for overall experience or experience in some specific area of special interest to you?” Let the interviewer’s response guide your answer.
5. According to your definition of success, how successful have you been so far?
(Is this person mature and self aware?) Be prepared to define success, and then respond (consistent record of responsibility)
6. In your current or last position, what were your most significant accomplishments? In your career so far? Give one or two accomplishment statements
7. Had you thought of leaving your present position before? If yes, what do you think held you there? Refer to positive aspects of the job, advancement opportunities, and what you learned.
8. Would you describe a few situations in which your work was criticized? Give only one, and tell how you have corrected or plan to correct your work.
9. If I spoke with your previous boss, what would he or she say are your greatest strengths and weaknesses? Be consistent with what you think the boss would say. Position the weakness in a positive way (refer to #12)
10. How would you describe your personality? Keep your answer short and relevant to the job and the organization’s culture.
11. What are your strong points? Present three. Relate them to that particular company and job opening.
12. What are your weak points? Don’t say you have one, but give one that is really a “positive in disguise.” I am sometimes impatient and do to much work myself when we are working against tight deadlines.” Or “I compliment and praise my staff, but feel I can improve.”
13. How did you do in school?
(Is the person motivated? What are his/her values, attitudes? Is there a fit?) Emphasize your best and favorite subjects. If grades were average, talk about leadership or jobs you took to finance your education. Talk about extra-curricular activities (clubs, sports, volunteer work)
14. In your current or last position, what features did you like most? Least? Refer to your satisfiers for likes. Be careful with dislikes, give only one (if any) and make it brief. Refuse to answer negatively. Respond that you “like everything about my current position and have acquired and developed a great many skills, but I’m now ready for a new set of challenges and greater responsibilities.”
15. What do you look for in a job? Flip this one over. Despite the question, the employer isn’t really interested in what you are looking for. He’s interested in what he is looking for. Address his interests, rather than yours. Use words like “contribute,” “enhance,” “improve,” and “team environment.” Fit your answer to their needs Relate your preferences and satisfiers/dissatisfiers to the job opening.
16. How long would it take you to make a meaningful contribution to our firm? “Not long, because of my experience, transferable skills and ability to learn.”
17. How long would you stay with us? “As long as I feel that I’m contributing, and that my contribution is recognized. I’m looking to make a long term commitment.”
18. If you have never supervised, how do you feel about assuming those responsibilities? If you want to supervise, say so, and be enthusiastic.
19. Why do you want to become a supervisor? “To grow and develop professionally, to help others develop, to build a team and to share what I have learned.”
20. What do you see as the most difficult task in being a supervisor? “Getting things planned and done through others and dealing with different personalities.” Show how you have done this in the past.
21. You’ve been with your current employer quite a while. Why haven’t you advanced with him? Let’s assume the interviewer has a point here. That doesn’t mean you have to agree with the negative terms of the question. Answer: “What I like about my present position is that it’s both stable and challenging. But it’s true that I’ve grown about as much as I can in my current position. (This response also turns the issue of salary on its head, transforming it from What more can I get? to What more can I offer?)
22. Why are you leaving your present position? Never answer with negative reasons, even if they are true. However, some companies have financial problems which may preclude you from staying with them. Frame your answer positively by answering why you want to move to the target company instead of why you left or want to leave your most recent job. For example, instead of answering, “I don’t get enough challenges at [company],” respond, “I am eager to take on more challenges, and I believe I will find them at [hiring company]. ”I’m not unhappy (at my present employer). However, this opportunity seems to be particularly interesting and I am interested in pursuing it further. Never personalize or be negative. Keep it short, give a “group” answer (e.g. our office is closing, the whole organization is being reduced in size). Stick to one response; don’t change answers during the interview. When applicable; best response is: I was not on the market when PPR Career contacted me and explained what you are doing, it peaked my interest.
23. Describe what would be an ideal working environment? Team work is the key.
24. How would you evaluate your present firm? Be positive. Refer to the valuable experience you have gained. Don’t mention negatives.
25. Do you prefer working with figures, or with words? Be aware of what the job requires and position your answer in that context. In many cases it would be both.
26. What kinds of people do you find difficult to work with? Use this question as a chance to show that you are a team player: “The only people I have trouble with are those who aren’t team players, who just don’t perform, who complain constantly, and who fail to respond to any efforts to motivate them.” The interviewer is expecting a response focused on personality and personal dislikes. Surprise her by delivering an answer that reflects company values.
27. How would your co-workers describe you? Refer to your strengths and skills.
28. What do you think of your boss? If you like him or her, say so and tell why. If you don’t like him or her, find something positive to say.
29. Why do you want to work in a company of this size. Or this type? Explain how this size or type of company works well for you, using examples from the past if possible.
30. If you had your choice of jobs and companies, where would you go? Refer to job preferences. Say that this job and this company are very close to what best suits you.
31. Why do you want to work for us? You feel you can help achieve the companies objectives, especially in the short run. You like what you’ve learned about the company, its policies, goals and management: “I’ve researched the company and people tell me it’s a good place to work.”
32. What was the last book you read? Movie you saw? Sporting event you attended? Think this through. Your answer should be compatible with accepted norms.
33. What are you doing, or what have you done to reach your career objectives? Talk about formal courses and training programs.
34. What was wrong with your last company? Again, choose your words carefully. Don’t be negative. Say that no company is perfect, it had both strengths and weaknesses.
35. What kind of hours are you used to working?
“As many hours as it takes to get the job done.”
36. What would you do for us? Relate past success in accomplishing the objectives which are similar to those of the prospective employer.
37. What has your experience been in supervising people? Give examples from accomplishments.
38. Are you a good supervisor? Draw from your successes. Yes, my people like and respect me personally and professionally. They often comment on how much they learn and develop under my supervision.
39. Did you ever fire anyone? If so, what were the reasons and how did you handle it? If you haven’t, say so, but add that you could do it, if necessary.
40. How have you helped your company? Refer to accomplishments.
41. What is the most money you ever accounted for? Largest budget responsibility? Refer to accomplishments. If you haven’t had budget responsibility, say so, but refer to an accomplishment that demonstrates the same skill.
42. What’s the most difficult situation you ever faced on the job? Remember, you’re talking to a prospective employer, not your best friend. Don’t dredge up a catastrophe that resulted in a personal or corporate failure. Be ready for this question by thinking of a story that has a happy ending – happy for you and your company. Never digress into personal or family difficulties, and don’t talk about problems you’ve had with supervisors or peers. You might discuss a difficult situation with a subordinate, provided that the issues were resolved inventively and to everyone’s satisfaction.
43. Describe some situations in which you have worked under pressure or met deadlines? Refer to accomplishments. Everyone has had a few of these pressure situations in a career. Behavior-related questions aim at assessing a candidate’s character, attitude, and personality traits by asking for an account of how the candidate handled certain challenging situations. Plan for such questions by making a list of the desirable traits relevant to the needs of the industry or prospective employer and by preparing some job-related stories about your experience that demonstrate a range of those traits and habits of conduct. Before answering the questions, listen carefully and ask any clarifying questions you think necessary. Tell your story and conclude by explaining what you intended your story to illustrate. Finally, ask for feedback: “Does this tell you what you need to know?”
44. How do you handle rejection? Rejection is part of business. People don’t always buy what you sell. The tick here is to separate rejection of your product from rejection of yourself: “I see rejection as an opportunity. I learn from it. When a customer takes a pass, I ask him what we could do to the product, price or service to make it possible for him to say yes. Don’t get me wrong: You’ve got to makes sales. But rejection is valuable, too. It’s a good teacher.”
45. In your present position, what problems have you identified that had previously been overlooked? Refer to accomplishments
46. Give an example of your creativity. Refer to accomplishments.
47. Give examples of your leadership abilities. Draw examples from accomplishments.
48. What are your career goals? Talk first about doing the job for which you are applying. Your career goals should mesh with the hiring company goals.
49. What position do you expect to have in two years? Just say you wish to exceed objectives so well that you will be on a promotable track.
50. What are your objectives?
(How does the person handle stress? What is their confidence level?) Refer back to question #48 on goals.
51. Why should we hire you? This may sound suspicious, negative, or just plain harsh. Actually, it’s a call for help. The employer wants you to help him/her hire you. Keep your response brief. Recap any job requirements the interviewer may have mentioned earlier in the interview, then, point by point, match your skills, abilities and qualifications to those items. Relate a past experience which represents success in achieving objectives which may be similar to those of the prospective employer.
52. You may be over-qualified or too experienced for the position we have to offer. “A strong company needs a strong person.” An employer will get faster return on investment because you have more experience than required.
53. Why haven’t you found a new position before now? “Finding the right job takes time. I’m not looking for just any job.”
54. If you could start again, what would you do differently? No need to be self-revealing. “Hindsight is 20/20; everyone would make some changes, but I’ve learned and grown from all my decisions.”
55. How much do you expect if we offer this position to you? Be careful. If you don’t know the market value, return the question by saying that you would expect a fair salary based on the job responsibilities, your experience and skills and the market value of the job. Express your interest in the job because it fits your career goals – Receptive to a reasonable and competitive offer – don’t talk $’s. It’s always best to put off discussing salary and let PPR Career handle that. ANSWER: I’m open to a competitive offer. I’d prefer to discuss the opportunity and allow my recruiter to handle any salary questions.

Topics for networking interview
By Rahul Revlana | April 20, 2010
These questions were sent in from IBM. They discuss various telecom and networking topics.
A. Describe OSPF in your own words.
B. OSPF areas, the purpose of having each of them
C. Types of OSPF LSA, the purpose of each LSA type
D. What exact LSA type you can see in different areas
E. How OSPF establishes neighboor relation, what the stages are
F. If OSPF router is stucked in each stage what the problem is and how to troubleshoot it
G. OSPF hierarchy in the single or multi areas. Cool OSPF behavior in broadcast and nonbroadcast
H. Draw the diagram of typical OSPF network and explain generally how it works, DR, BDR, election, ASBR, ABR, route redistribution and summarization
2. STP
A. How it works and the purpose
B. Diff types (SSTP, MSTP, RSTP) Cisco - PVST/PVST+
C. Root election
D. Diff. port stages and timing for convergence
E. Draw the typical diagram and explain how diff types of STP work
F. What ports are blocking or forwarding
G. How it works if there are topology changes
3. ACLs
A. What are they
B. Diff types
C. Write an example if you want to allow and to deny…
D. Well-known port numbers (DNS - 53 and etc…)
4. QOS
A. What is that
B. What is the diff b/w L2 and L3 QoS
C. How it works
5. Network
A. Draw the typical network diagram you have to deal with
B. Explain how it works
C. What part of it you are responsible
D. firewall, what is that, how it works, how it is diff from ACLs
E. What problems with the network you had had and how you solved it.
F. What are the ways to troubleshoot the network, techniques, commands
G. Network security, ways to achieve it
6. Switching
C. How a L2 switch works with broadcast, unicast, multicast, known/unknown traffic
E. port monitoring and mirroring
F. L3 switch, how it works
G. PIM sparse and dense modes

Networking questions
By Rahul Revlana | April 20, 2010
1. What is a default gateway? - The exit-point from one network and entry-way into another network, often the router of the network.
2. How do you set a default route on an IOS Cisco router? - ip route x.x.x.x [where x.x.x.x represents the destination address]
3. What is the difference between a domain local group and a global group? - Domain local groups grant permissions to objects within the domain in which the reside. Global groups contain grant permissions tree or forest wide for any objects within the Active Directory.
4. What is LDAP used for? - LDAP is a set of protocol used for providing access to information directories.
5. What tool have you used to create and analyze packet captures? - Network Monitor in Win2K / Win2K3, Ethereal in Linux, OptiView Series II (by Fluke Networks).
6. How does HSRP work?
7. What is the significance of the IP address - The limited broadcast address is utilized when an IP node must perform a one-to-everyone delivery on the local network but the network ID is unknown.

Windows sysadmin interview questions
By Rahul Revlana | April 20, 2010
1. What are the required components of Windows Server 2003 for installing Exchange 2003? - ASP.NET, SMTP, NNTP, W3SVC
2. What must be done to an AD forest before Exchange can be deployed? - Setup /forestprep
3. What Exchange process is responsible for communication with AD? - DSACCESS
4. What 3 types of domain controller does Exchange access? - Normal Domain Controller, Global Catalog, Configuration Domain Controller
5. What connector type would you use to connect to the Internet, and what are the two methods of sending mail over that connector? - SMTP Connector: Forward to smart host or use DNS to route to each address
6. How would you optimise Exchange 2003 memory usage on a Windows Server 2003 server with more than 1Gb of memory? - Add /3Gb switch to boot.ini
7. What would a rise in remote queue length generally indicate? - This means mail is not being sent to other servers. This can be explained by outages or performance issues with the network or remote servers.
8. What would a rise in the Local Delivery queue generally mean? - This indicates a performance issue or outage on the local server. Reasons could be slowness in consulting AD, slowness in handing messages off to local delivery or SMTP delivery. It could also be databases being dismounted or a lack of disk space.
9. What are the standard port numbers for SMTP, POP3, IMAP4, RPC, LDAP and Global Catalog? - SMTP – 25, POP3 – 110, IMAP4 – 143, RPC – 135, LDAP – 389, Global Catalog - 3268
10. Name the process names for the following: System Attendant? – MAD.EXE, Information Store – STORE.EXE, SMTP/POP/IMAP/OWA – INETINFO.EXE
11. What is the maximum amount of databases that can be hosted on Exchange 2003 Enterprise? - 20 databases. 4 SGs x 5 DBs.
12. What are the disadvantages of circular logging? - In the event of a corrupt database, data can only be restored to the last backup.

Windows sysadmin interview questions
By Rahul Revlana | April 20, 2010
1. What is Active Directory schema?
2. What are the domain functional level in Windows Server 2003?
3. What are the forest functional level in Windows Server 2003?
4. What is global catalog server?
5. How we can raise domain functional & forest functional level in Windows Server 2003?
6. Which is the deafult protocol used in directory services?
7. What is IPv6?
8. What is the default domain functional level in Windows Server 2003?
9. What are the physical & logical components of ADS
10. In which domain functional level, we can rename domain name?
11. What is multimaster replication?
12. What is a site?
13. Which is the command used to remove active directory from a domain controler?
14. How we can create console, which contain schema?
15. What is trust?
16. What is the file that’s responsible for keep all Active Directory database?

Network engineer interview questions
By Rahul Revlana | April 20, 2010
1. User(s) are complaining of delays when using the network. What would you do?
2. What are some of the problems associated with operating a switched LAN?
3. Name some of the ways of combining TCP/IP traffic and SNA traffic over the same link.
4. What sort of cabling is suitable for Fast Ethernet protocols?
5. What is a Class D IP address?
6. Why do I sometimes lose a server’s address when using more than one server?
7. What is Firewall?
8. How do I monitor the activity of sockets?
9. How would I put my socket in non-blocking mode?
10. What are RAW sockets?
11. What is the role of TCP protocol and IP protocol.
12. What is UDP?
13. How can I make my server a daemon?
14. How should I choose a port number for my server?
15. Layers in TCP/IP
16. How can I be sure that a UDP message is received?
17. How to get IP header of a UDP message
18. Writing UDP/SOCK_DGRAM applications
19. How many bytes in an IPX network address?
20. What is the difference between MUTEX and Semaphore?
21. What is priority inversion?
22. Different Solutions to dining philosophers problem.
23. What is a message queue?
24. Questions on Shared Memory.
25. What is DHCP?
26. Working of ping, telnet, gopher.
27. Can I connect two computers to internet using same line ?

Windows Server and MS Exchange interview questions
By Rahul Revlana | April 20, 2010
1. What is DHCP? How we configure DHCP?
2. What are the ways to configure DNS & Zones?
3. What are the types of backup? Explain each?
4. What are Levels of RAID 0, 1, 5? Which one is better & why?
5. What are FMSO Roles? List them.
6. Describe the lease process of the DHCP server.
7. Disaster Recovery Plan?
8. What is scope & super scope?
9. Differences between Win 2000 Server & Advanced Server?
10. Logical Diagram of Active Directory? What is the difference between child domain & additional domain server?
11. FTP, NNTP, SMTP, KERBEROS, DNS, DHCP, POP3 port numbers?
12. What is Kerberos? Which version is currently used by Windows? How does Kerberos work?
1. Distribution List?
2. GAL, Routing Group, Stm files, Eseutil & ininteg - what are they used for?
3. What is MIME & MAPI?
4. List the services of Exchange Server 2000?
5. How would you recover Exchange server when the log file is corrupted?

Network developer interview questions
By Rahul Revlana | April 20, 2010
1. What ports does FTP traffic travel over?
2. What ports does mail traffic utilize?
3. What ports do HTTP and HTTPS use?
4. Why is NTP required in an NFS network?
5. Name some common mal software on the server side
6. What is CPAN? How do you access it?
7. What is PEAR?
8. What advantages does mod_perl have over a perl CGI?
9. What is required to do SSL in Apache 1.x?
10. What is Tcl?
11. What is a servlet engine/container?
12. What is BIND?
13. Name the steps to setup a slave zone in BIND
14. Name the steps to setup a primary zone in BIND
15. What commands would you use under Solaris or Linux to modify/view an LDAP tree?

Sysadmin interview questions
By Rahul Revlana | April 20, 2010
1. What is a level 0 backup?
2. What is an incremental backup?
3. What steps are required to perform a bare-metal recovery?
4. Name key files or directories on a UNIX system that should always be backed up.
5. Name key files or directories on a Windows system that should always be backed up.
6. What is RAID 0?
7. What is RAID 0+1? Why is it better than 0?
8. What is RAID-5?
9. Why would you NOT want to encapsulate a root directory with Veritas?
10. What is concatenation?
11. What is striping?
12. What is a spindle?

Hiring an IT guy - questions to ask
By Rahul Revlana | April 20, 2010
This is an aggregated list of questions discussed for hiring an IT guy for your organization at SpiceWorks community forum. Check out their discussion, and description of what question are good and which ones are not that good.
1. What port does telnet use?
2. What is SMTP?
3. How would you troubleshoot a printer?
4. How does traceroute work?
5. Walk me through everything that happens in the network from the moment you punch in in the address bar to when the browser displays the page?
6. Can you work this weekend?
7. What kind of people are your current users? Do you like them?
8. What role do you think computer support analysts should play in the company?
9. Assuming you have to work for a living and all jobs pay the same, how would you describe the job you want?
10. When conflict arises on your team, how do you handle it?
11. How do you stay current?
12. What operating system do you prefer and why?
13. What part of the project life cycle have you worked on?
14. Describe the project or situation that best demonstrates your coding (or analytical) skills.
15. What is the differece between local, global and universal groups?
16. What is the major difference between FAT and NTFS?
17. Name the FMSO roles and their functions.
18. You’ve just been asked to create 20 new Users and update 2 GPOs, ASAP! You go to the Administrative Tools, and discover they are all gone. What do you do? What do you suspect happened?
19. What is a Global Catalog?
20. Explain the function of DNS.
21. Explain a “Two-Way Transitive” trust.
22. In speaking about trusts, what does “Non-transitive” mean?
23. Describe the lease process of DHCP.
24. Explain NTP.
25. What is the 568B wiring scheme?
26. What us your highest achievement while working in the IT field?
27. What are your short term goals to achieve?
28. You have a user call for support for the 5th time on the same issue. How would you handle the call and what would you do differently?
29. List as many ways you can think of to move a file from a Windows machine to a Linux machine.
30. Demonstrate recursiveness by implementing a factorial function

Sysadmin sample interview questions
By Rahul Revlana | April 20, 2010
1. Why was it that you left the last job that you were at?
2. What do you think your top 3 strengths are?
3. What is most important to you in a job?
4. Major difference between FAT and NTFS on a local machine?
5. How many passwords by default are remembered in an active directory?
6. What is a C name record (in DNS)?
7. What is a LM host file used for?
8. Can you name the FSMO roles in active directory?
9. What tolls would you use to gage the effect of group policy before using any tools?
10. Explain Active Directory sites and services and linked cost routing?
11. When would you use circular logging and exchange?
12. Exhange related question - as an echange admin if someone asked you how to determine if mail was delivered or not which tool would you use?
13. Can you explain how you configurated SMS.
14. Rate yourself in 3 different areas (1-5, 5 is expert

54 screening questions for Windows admin
By Rahul Revlana | April 20, 2010
1. What is Active Directory?
2. What is LDAP?
3. Can you connect Active Directory to other 3rd-party Directory Services? Name a few options.
4. Where is the AD database held? What other folders are related to AD?
5. What is the SYSVOL folder?
6. Name the AD NCs and replication issues for each NC
7. What are application partitions? When do I use them
8. How do you create a new application partition
9. How do you view replication properties for AD partitions and DCs?
10. What is the Global Catalog?
11. How do you view all the GCs in the forest?
12. Why not make all DCs in a large forest as GCs?
13. Trying to look at the Schema, how can I do that?
14. What are the Support Tools? Why do I need them?
15. What is LDP? What is REPLMON? What is ADSIEDIT? What is NETDOM? What is REPADMIN?
16. What are sites? What are they used for?
17. What’s the difference between a site link’s schedule and interval?
18. What is the KCC?
19. What is the ISTG? Who has that role by default?
20. What are the requirements for installing AD on a new server?
21. What can you do to promote a server to DC if you’re in a remote location with slow WAN link?
22. How can you forcibly remove AD from a server, and what do you do later? • Can I get user passwords from the AD database?
23. What tool would I use to try to grab security related packets from the wire?
24. Name some OU design considerations.
25. What is tombstone lifetime attribute?
26. What do you do to install a new Windows 2003 DC in a Windows 2000 AD?
27. What do you do to install a new Windows 2003 R2 DC in a Windows 2003 AD?
28. How would you find all users that have not logged on since last month?
29. What are the DS* commands?
30. What’s the difference between LDIFDE and CSVDE? Usage considerations?
31. What are the FSMO roles? Who has them by default? What happens when each one fails?
32. What FSMO placement considerations do you know of?
33. I want to look at the RID allocation table for a DC. What do I do?
34. What’s the difference between transferring a FSMO role and seizing one? Which one should you NOT seize? Why?
35. How do you configure a “stand-by operation master” for any of the roles?
36. How do you backup AD?
37. How do you restore AD?
38. How do you change the DS Restore admin password?
39. Why can’t you restore a DC that was backed up 4 months ago?
40. What are GPOs?
41. What is the order in which GPOs are applied?
42. Name a few benefits of using GPMC.
43. What are the GPC and the GPT? Where can I find them?
44. What are GPO links? What special things can I do to them?
45. What can I do to prevent inheritance from above?
46. How can I override blocking of inheritance?
47. How can you determine what GPO was and was not applied for a user? Name a few ways to do that.
48. A user claims he did not receive a GPO, yet his user and computer accounts are in the right OU, and everyone else there gets the GPO. What will you look for?
49. Name a few differences in Vista GPOs
50. Name some GPO settings in the computer and user parts.
51. What are administrative templates?
52. What’s the difference between software publishing and assigning?
53. Can I deploy non-MSI software with GPO?
54. You want to standardize the desktop environments (wallpaper, My Documents, Start menu, printers etc.) on the computers in one department. How would you do that?

12 general questions from an international company
By Rahul Revlana | April 20, 2010
A TechInterviews reader sent in the questions he faced at a major global company. The questions are fairly generic:
1. Tell me about your analytical skills, cite some examples of how you have used your skills in the past.
2. What are some of your long term goals?
3. What are your short term goals?
4. Where do you see yourself five years from now?
5. Tell me why I should hire you?
6. What does customer service mean to you?
7. Why did you leave your last job?
8. Describe your definition of a team player?
9. Sight examples of when in the past you have proven to be a team player?
10. How would you handle a conflict with another employee?
11. What do you believe you can gain by working at this company?
12. Give me some examples of times in the past, when you were able to avoid a conflict, by thinking on your feet. Tell what you know about this company